Working WELL: Designing for human health.

WELL is the first building standard to focus on enhancing people’s health and wellbeing through the built environment.  In this article, authors Kaitlyn Gillis and Dak Kopec provide an overview of the WELL standard and its principles. They also examine Canada’s potential to establish itself as global leaders in the practice of creating healthy workplaces.

The WELL standard is premised on the World Health Organization’s definition of health as the optimal physical, psychological and sociological state of an individual—and not simply as the   absence of disease or infirmity. This comprehensive definition has been around since 1948, but our practical conceptualization of health often remains centered on illness and injury. In every moment of life, humans are in an environment, whether 
it is natural or built. At all of these moments, there’s an opportunity 
to positively impact people’s health through design.

Canadians spend over 90 percent of their time indoors—either in buildings or in transit between them. While that’s been acknowledged 
by the design sector for some time, the health impact of spending 
so much time indoors has been relatively neglected. An emerging design trend is taking a hard look at how the built environment informs the health and wellbeing of building occupants. As a large and culturally diverse country with an emphasis on social justice, Canada has the potential to become a global leader in this health and wellbeing movement.

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 Over the past decade green building practices focusing on creating environmentally conscious buildings have become entrenched in the industry.  Shifting towards a closer look at how buildings can positively impact the wellbeing of its occupants represents the next step in the path towards sustainability.

 

Ethonomics: Designing for the principles of the modern workplace.

A new paper by Teknion and Perkins+Will explores the connections between sustainability and human health. Examining key drivers of workplace wellness including: technology, food, urban environments, movement, nature, disruption and sensory stimuli, the authors explore how workplace design can impact employee wellness.

We are beginning to see a cultural shift—a new awareness of how deeply human and environmental health are connected. If we begin with a discussion of the lifestyle choices we make as individuals, we must consider three key features of the cultural landscape that influence our behaviors, our health and that of the natural world. These are technology, food and the urban environment.

Considering the impact of human systems on natural systems—and the impact of the natural and built environments upon human beings—we can posit that the power of design today is something more than aesthetics, communication or the creation of desirable products. Rather, it must be practiced as a process of integrative thinking—a synthesis of design, technology, science and humanistic principles—set within the context of social, economic and environmental ethics: “Ethonomics.”

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In this paper, the authors posit the idea that well-designed space, in all its forms can be a catalyst for physical and psychological health. As such, ethonomics is a deeper dive into our understanding of sustainability and what that means in terms of human beings at work.

WELL-BEING IN THE WORKPLACE

 

Recently, Kay Sargent, VP of A+D and Workplace Strategies at Teknion, hosted a roundtable discussion on design’s impact on well-being in the workplace.  She and the participants discussed what defines a “good” or “healthy” work environment and how does one achieve it in a space?

 

The sustainability movement has lead to a new awareness of how to design buildings to be more sustainable. But what are we doing for the occupant? True, greener buildings are healthier for the occupant with better lighting, more access to natural daylight, reduced exposure to toxins and increased fresh air. But that’s not enough. Sitting stagnantly at a desk staring at a computer all day is killing us faster than anything else. Many office-based workers are not living healthy lives, and we as the design community have an opportunity to change that. 

Teknion Livello Tables

On April 5th, Teknion hosted Sue Schmidt of Healthways to speak to industry thought leaders in New York to discuss how designers can improve well-being in the workplace through the power of informed design. The session included a presentation by Sue, a lively interactive discussion among the designers present, and was followed by a group interview conducted by Susan Szenasy of Metropolis magazine.

Sue’s background is in Facilities and Real Estate with a focus on built environment design. As a Well-Being Design Leader at Healthways, Sue’s role is to help organizations create optimized physical environments that support well-being.

The health and well-being of an individual affects many aspects that impact work, including absenteeism, presenteeism, productivity and healthcare costs. One’s well-being is determined by a combination of factors. Surprisingly, access to care only influences 10 percent of one’s well-being, while genetics and environment comprise 20 percent each, with healthy behavior responsible for 50 percent of an individual’s well-being. How we design spaces today can impact an individual’s well-being and determine if they thrive or dive at work. But how do we define a “good” work environment? If the definition is one that increases productivity, drives retention and makes an organization an “employer of choice,” then well-being is a factor that we can’t overlook.  

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SHRINKING OFFICESPACE… SACRIFICE OR OPPORTUNITY?

The Corporate Workplace is changing. Economic volatility remains a top concern for 2013 and many Mississauga companies are looking at ways to reduce their overall space. By shifting to fewer private offices, to smaller individual workstations and incorporating more open/shared space for teaming, companies are able to reduce real estate costs while incorporating solutions to meet their additional workplace goals such as sustainability, new technologies and diversity.

“Our Clients are aware of changing employee demographics,” says Kathy van Brussel of Mississauga based Comley van Brussel Design. “They want to attract top talent and are using these new workplace strategies to create a positive work environment with less individual real estate”. But less space doesn’t need to feel small. Today’s innovative offices make the most of shrinking footprints to benefit both the office worker and the bottom line. Here are some tips for getting more out of less space.

REDUCE NUMBER OF DESKS:

Companies that really want to really reduce space are doing it by addressing the desk to employee ratio. For example, accompany with 100 employees could have only 60-80 assigned desks.1 How is this feasible? Because the reality is approximate 60% of a company’s desks are vacant at any one time, because workers are either on the road, working remotely or in meetings, according to CoreNet Global, Canada’s leading corporate real estate association.2

ADJUST FOR TECHNOLOGY:

Remember how big our computers used to be? A lot of people are still sitting at worksurfaces designed to hold those large, bulky computer monitors. Now that we have laptops and flat screens a lot of the worksurface is under-utilized. Accordingly, we can reduce the depth of worksurface, with no impact to the employee.

In this digital age we generate less paper so our filing needs have also gone down. Smaller storage units, strategically placed within workstations, are now feasible alongside shared meeting tables.

RETHINK WORKSPACE DESIGN:

Consider a standard private office of 10 x 15 sq.ft. with a swinging door. Simply replacing the swinging door with a sliding door saves approximately 9 sq.ft.3 Some meeting rooms have become “convertible” and can also be used as a private office.

Furniture with overlapping surfaces and under-surface storage make even more efficient use of space. This provides more storage capacity where you need it, like under your desk and not where you don’t need it, like behind your monitor. Use furniture that can multitask. For example, storage units can double as space dividers in a workstation, and cushions on top of file drawers accommodate visitors. As our workspaces continue to shrink, we should ask not “how can we get that space back” but how can we use the space we have to its greatest potential!

References:

  1. Sargent, Kay, IIDEX Cocreate Round Table Discussion, Toronto, September 2011
  2. Shevory, Kristina, “Office Work Space is Shrinking, but that’s Not All Bad”. The New York Times, January 19, 2011
  3. Fleming, Darren, The Trend of Shrinking Office Space http://www.cresapartners.com/ottawa/blog/2011/07/the-trend-of-shrinking-office

Clearing the air: Creating healthy environments

On average, we spend 90 percent of our time indoors – whether it’s at home, school, the office, or within another enclosed space. Research has shown that indoor air can have greater toxicity than outdoor (by up to 5 times).3 But, did you know that according to the EPA, indoor air quality could be ten times worse than the outdoor air on warm days in large smoggy cities?4

Considering the health warnings we receive on smoggy days, what happens when we go to an office everyday that has poor indoor air quality? The effects of poor air quality can range from a low-level headache to fatigue to respiratory problems4 – and their impact on the office is significant. It is estimated that employers in the U.S. lose approximately $15 billion a year to sickness and/or productivity loss as a result of inadequate indoor air quality.4

New, energy efficient buildings may even compound the issue. Improvements in construction practices mean newer buildings are virtually sealed.  This reduces natural ventilation and airflow, potentially increasing indoor air problems.2

VOCs: an unseen danger

A major contributor to poor indoor air quality is Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs). VOCs include a variety of chemicals that are emitted as gases (known as off-gassing) and are linked to several health issues.4 VOCs are emitted by a wide array of products – everything from the paint on the walls, to the chair you sit in, and the permanent marker you use may off-gas.  Importantly, products may continue to off-gas even after they lose their “new” smell.

Teknion factory where indoor air quality is monitored

Improving Indoor Air Quality

Despite the impact indoor air quality has on employee health and productivity, it is often overlooked when planning an office space. Product selection, application and planning can greatly improve indoor air quality in the following ways:

1. Selecting low VOC furniture

Many manufacturers offer low-VOC or no-VOC products as standard in their product offering.1 Look for GREENGUARD, BIFMA, or Scientific Certification Systems IAQ – to be assured that the furniture won’t contribute to poor air quality through off-gassing.

Global’s Princeton workstation has the GREENGUARD Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) Certification

2. Maximizing workspace airflow

Maintaining airflow throughout a space will improve air quality. Opting for lower panel heights as well as panels that don’t extend to the floor will not only help create an open plan workspace, but also provide a light and airy feeling while enhancing air circulation.

Additionally, ensuring that vents and windows are unobstructed, and that areas are not overcrowded, will allow for better circulation.5

Teknion’s District panel systems use VOC-free powder coat paint, allow airflow both above and below the system, and are GREENGUARD Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) certified

3. Using furniture efficiently

Gone are the days of needing a large desk that can accommodate a big bulky CRT monitor. Technology has also reduced many workplaces’ need for paper storage and filing.

Advances in technology and globalization of the workforce also mean that less and less workers spend all their time in the office. As a result, less permanent workstations are needed and there is more need for shared spaces that can be used for a short time by any number of people.

Incorporating furniture that can be quickly and easily reconfigured to adapt to changing work styles often means that less space and furniture is needed per person over time. This effective and efficient use of product mean less VOCs are created and released.

Offices that prioritize air quality benefit from improved morale and vitality. Tellingly, visitors to these offices reported a greater a sense of energy and wellbeing6.  Through the careful selection and application of product in a space, organizations can realize a return on investment in employee health, wellbeing, productivity, attraction and retention, and ultimately the bottom line.

Resources:

1.     EcoEvaluator. 2008-2011. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs). Available: http://www.ecoevaluator.com/lifestyle/health-and-safety/volatile-organic-compounds-vocs.html

2.     Kazawest Property Management. 2012. Indoor Air Quality: maintaining a healthy environment in offices and homes. Available: www.kazawest.com/indoor-air-quality

3.     GREENGUARD Environmental Institute. 2012. Sustainability. Available: http://www.greenguard.org/en/indoorAirQuality/iaq_sustainability.aspx.

4.     GreenBuilding.com. 2008-2010. Indoor Air Quality. Available: http://www.greenbuilding.com/knowledge-base/indoor-air-quality

5.     Building Air Quality Inc. 2006. Tenants: Building Occupants and IAQ. Available: www.baq1.com/htenants.htm

6.     Smith, Chris. (April 16, 2012) Do We Really Need Business Cases for Healthy Indoor Environments? Workspace Design Magazine. Available: http://workspacedesignmagazine.com/2012/04/do-we-really-need-business-cases-for-healthy-indoor-environments/

 

New Ergonomics for the Agile Office

Livello(by Teknion), is a folding, height-adjustable table.
Livello(by Teknion), is a folding, height-adjustable table.

 

Simply put, ergonomics is the science of adjusting the workplace to the worker. As we know, the effects of ergonomics extend well beyond employee comfort. They impact productivity, morale, and even product and service quality. It is estimated that the average cost of one musculoskeletal disorder is $25,000 in direct costs and five to eight times that number in indirect costs3.

 

While people know it’s important to have a good chair and ergonomic work tools, what happens when the office space shifts? The increase in mobile technology combined with new collaborative work styles means that more and more, employees are no longer working from a permanent space that is theirs.

 

Ergonomics in collaborative spaces

According to the National Statistics Council, an average of 37% of employee time is spent in meetings5.  Studies also found that most professionals believe that over 50 % of meeting time is wasted1.  Considering such a substantial amount of time is being spent (ineffectively) in meeting rooms, every factor impacting productivity should be reviewed, including ergonomics.

 

Sitting in a chair for hours at a stretch invites poor posture; next time you are in a lengthy meeting, check out the body positions of everyone around you.  You’ll notice a lot of leaning and slouching – positions that put stress and pressure on our bodies.

 

However, many people never get any further than setting the height of their chair, especially in a meeting room. Adjustments such as seat depth (essential for proper leg comfort) and tilt tension (enabling the user to recline comfortably) are often forgotten. Incorporating seating with simple adjustment controls in meeting rooms can counter this apathy by allowing users to quickly and easily adjust chairs to accommodate their needs, ultimately enabling them to be more comfortable and productive.

 

Teknion’s Contessa chair features intuitive controls in the armrests

Teknion’s Contessa chair features intuitive controls in the armrests

In addition to meetings in formal spaces, impromptu gatherings occur in casual settings such as lounges, or even the spaces between desks. Incorporating places to meet and work while standing provides a good ergonomic option, as research has shown that changing posture throughout the day is beneficial in injury prevention as well as productivity. Research has found that workers who could alternate between sitting and standing experienced the lowest incidence of back pain. Only 3.5% of people who held jobs with two to four hours of sitting per day reported back pain, compared to 42% of those who sat for more then four hours6.  Another study also discovered that switching frequently from seated to standing increased productivity and decreased error and miss rates2. Tables that convert from seated to standing height are now available from major contract office furniture manufacturers.

 

The Teknion Livello Table adjusts from seated to standing height via a simple touch pad

The Teknion Livello Table adjusts from seated to standing height via a simple touch pad

 

Ergonomics in the mobile office

Nearly 80 percent of salaried workers in the United States spend at least eight hours per week using mobile devices, according to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics7.

 

While convenient and mobile, laptops can place stress on our bodies.  Most common is the “turtle” posture – a hunched back and protruding neck/head that results from cramming the body into the confined space of the joined keyboard and screen4.

“Turtle” posture while using a laptop

“Turtle” posture while using a laptop

To eliminate the “turtle”, use a laptop stand to place the monitor in the correct position for reading, then use a separate keyboard and mouse at the desk to allow for comfortable typing. This can dramatically improve user comfort and reduce the risk of long-term injury by promoting good ergonomic posture. Setting up touchdown stations that incorporate these types of tools allows the mobile worker to set-up and work comfortably when they are in the office.

 

Humanscale’s L6 Notebook Manager promotes a healthy posture when using a laptop

Humanscale’s L6 Notebook Manager promotes a healthy posture when using a laptop

 

While ergonomics has been touted as improving productivity, cutting absenteeism, reducing on-the-job injuries, improving morale and minimizing turnover, we must recognize that no single solution is right for everyone or every space.  Incorporating furniture and work tool options that are adjustable to not only the user, but also the task they are performing and the technology they are using will ensure maximum comfort, productivity, and flexibility for the future.

Resources

  1. Klubeck, Jeffrey Scott. The Expense of Ineffective Meetings. Retrieved from http://www.wolfmotivation.com/articles/the-expense-of-ineffective-meetings
  2. Budnick, Peter. (Aug 13, 2009) Ergonomics Impact on Productivity, Quality and Organizational Performance — more from the World Congress on Ergonomics [Web log comment]. Retrieved from http://www.ergoweb.com/forum/index.cfm?page=topic&topicID=5347
  3. Davis, Cyndi. (July 19, 2010) 4 Common Misconceptions about Office Ergonomics. Retrieved from http://ergonomicedge.wordpress.com/2010/07/19/4-common-misconceptions-about-office-ergonomics/
  4. Stanford University Environmental Health & Safety. Ergonomics Guidance for Mobile Devices. Retrieved from http://www.stanford.edu/dept/EHS/prod/general/ergo/documents/laptop_guide.pdf
  5. Lee, Shirley. Management / HR Statistics. Retrieved from http://www.shirleyfinelee.com/MgmtStats
  6. Allie, Paul and Kokot, Doug. Choosing a Chair Based on Fit, Comfort and Adjustable Features 2.1. February 2005). Retrieved from http://www.oneworkplace.com/pdfs/whitepapers/ChoosingAChair.pdf
  7. The ergonomics of mobile devices in the workplace. (Wednesday, May 9th, 2012). Retrieved from http://www.remedyinteractive.com/health-and-safety-news/ergonomics/the-ergonomics-of-mobile-devices-in-the-workplace/

Shrinking Office Space – Sacrifice or Opportunity?

In the 1970’s, American corporations typically thought they needed 500 to 700 sq. ft. per employee to build an effective office.1   Today, that’s about the size of an average urban condominium.   Now factor in rising real estate costs, increased globalization, wireless technology, economic austerity and the demand for a reduced environmental footprint, and space assignment has been pushed to a little more than 200 square feet per person. 1   And, in another 10 years, we could expect it to go down another 50 square feet to 150, according to Peter Miscovich, who studies workplace trends as a managing director at brokerage Jones Lang LaSalle.  The rate at which the modern office is changing is increasing exponentially,  “we’re at a very interesting inflection point in real estate history…the next 10 years will be very different than the last 30”, says Miscovich. 1

But less space doesn’t need to feel small. Today’s innovative design makes the most of shrinking footprints to benefit both the office worker and the bottom line. Here are some tips for getting more out of less space:

 

Reduce number of desks:

Companies that really want to reduce space are doing it by addressing the desk to employee ratio.  For example, a company with 100 employees can have only 60 to 80 assigned desks.2   How is this feasible? Because the reality is approximately 60 percent of a company’s desks are vacant at any one time, because workers are either on the road or in meetings, according to Core Net Global.3

Teknion’s Marketplace workbench provides support for touchdown workers

Adjust for technology:

Remember how big our computers used to be?  A lot of people are still sitting at worksurfaces designed to hold large, bulky computer monitors. Now that we have laptops and flat screens a lot of the work surface is under-utilized.  Accordingly we can reduce the depth of worksurface, with no impact to the employee.

In this digital age we generate less paper so our filing needs have also gone down. Smaller storage units within workstations, or even shared storage units are now feasible.

 

Rethink workspace design:

Consider a standard private office of 10×15 sq. ft. with a swinging door. Simply replacing the swinging door with a sliding door saves approximately 9 sq. ft. 4

Furniture with overlapping surfaces and under-surface storage make even more efficient use of space.  They provide more storage capacity while imparting a feeling of spaciousness.

Teknion’s District furniture utilizes overlapping worksurfaces to maximize space where you need it, like under your desk, and not where you don’t, like behind your monitor

Use furniture that can multi task. For example, storage units can double as space dividers in a workstation, and cushions on top of pedestals accommodate visitors.

Global Contract’s floorplay furniture utilizes shared storage as the spine of the workstations

As our workspaces continue to shrink, we will ask not “how can we get that space back”, but how can we use the space we have to its greatest potential.  Looking at the furniture options available today it is obvious that rising to the challenge of shrinking footprints have spurned innovation, and in so doing has ultimately made our workspaces better.

References:

  1. Vincent, Roger, “Office walls are closing in on corporate workers”. LA Times December 15, 2010
  2. Sargent, Kay, IIDEX Cocreate Round Table Discussion. Toronto. September 2011.
  3. Shevory, Kristina, “Office Work Space is Shrinking, but That’s Not All Bad”. The New York Times, January 19, 2011
  4. Fleming, Darren, The Trend of Shrinking Office Space http://www.cresapartners.com/ottawa/blog/2011/07/the-trend-of-shrinking-office-space/

 

The Multi-Generational Office

George Burns once said, “Look to the future, because that’s where you’ll spend the rest of your life”.  For millions in the corporate workforce, this couldn’t be more true. 4

Much has been written about how this is the first time there are four generations in the workforce. Characterizing and understanding the attitudes and expectations of these generations – Traditionalists, Baby Boomers, Gen Xers and Millenials – inside the workplace has been deemed the secret to integrating everyone and therefore creating a successful workplace.

But what is a successful workplace? Michael Greene, National Director, Corporate Solutions, Jones Lang LaSalle believes “to accommodate any group of individual’s requirements means a partnership between Human Resources, IT and Corporate Real Estate and building a culture that allows flexibility.  An environment that caters for different workstyles and different generations should measure success through:

  • Staff retention and attraction
  • A built environment that can support change
  • Instilling corporate culture into a disparate workforce”3

 

Okay, so you know that Millenials are collaborative and feedback oriented, Gen Xer’s are motivated by autonomy, Boomers “live to work” and Traditionalists are hierarchical and loyal.

So what does this really mean and how does it affect furniture purchasing?

Today’s office spaces need to adapt to both the Millenials’ inherent need for constant communication and feedback and the Gen X and Boomer’s need for autonomy and privacy.  The point, therefore, is not to contain and direct each group1, but as Gensler points out, to design and fit out a workplace that supports the ways in which everyone works.  To that end, Gensler has determined that work falls into four general categories: collaboration, focus, learning and socialization.2

Collaboration:

While this is a major theme for Millenials, they don’t own the need to collaborate. Extending beyond the boardroom, areas for collaboration include flexible, comfortable spaces that allow employees to re-arrange furniture to meet changing needs and encourage impromptu meetings. Wireless access is critical, and whiteboards should abound. Accommodating this can be as simple as a bench or a table alongside workstations, or some comfortable couches in the lunchroom.

Collaboration

Focus:

Every generation still requires privacy. Private offices should not only be the purview of senior staff but be determined by position and work role.  Privacy needs can vary from needing a “phone booth” to make a private call, to a secluded “study carrel” away from visual and audio distractions to write a report.

Focus

Learning:

In today’s knowledge economy where technology changes as it happens, training is a constant.  Research shows that learning is the most efficient when it happens in dedicated spaces.  Tables should integrate power and data for laptops, or projectors.  They should also be flexible to allow for classes to break into smaller groups, providing a balance of formal and informal learning.

Learning

Socialization:

Socialization spaces are becoming increasingly crucial. Beyond the cafeteria they can serve as an opportunity to build relationships, trust and shared ideas. Varied in their design, they can be small or large, but more and more these spaces are being integrated into the rest of the workplace and not tucked away.  Comfortable chairs and sofas encourage informal interaction and are a place to refresh and recharge.

Socialization

Focusing on the ways in which everyone works, rather than the differences between the generations, enables functional, comfortable and productive spaces can be created.  Not only will this bridge the gap to create a more cohesive team environment, it will also support individuals throughout the stages of their careers.

 

References:

1.      Pink, Daniel (2010, November 6). Think Tank: Fix the workplace, not the workers.  The Telegraph, Finance. Retrieved from http://www.telegraph.co.uk/finance/jobs/8113600/Think-Tank-Fix-the-workplace-not-the-workers.html

2.     Strombom, Dean. Accommodation of Multiple Generations in the Workspace.  Facilities Management Journal.  Retrieved from http://facilitymanagementresources.com/article.cgi?type=Magazine&title=Accommodation%20of%20Multiple%20Generations%20in%20the%20Workspace&pub=FMJ&id=30957&mode=source

3.     The impact of age-based demographics on design.  Facilities Management Magazine: RFP Office Space. Retrieved from http://www.fmlink.com/article.cgi?type=Magazine&title=The%20impact%20of%20age-based%20demographics%20on%20design%20&pub=RFP%20Office%20Space&id=31127&mode=source

4.     Epstein, Royce (2010, March 26). Future Furniture Trends. Contract. Retrieved from http://www.contractdesign.com/contract/Future-Furniture-Tre-1288.shtml